Let us not speak of them, but look, and pass.". This small moment of interpretive difficulty may stand as but one example of two things: the difficulty of this poem and the extraordinarily subtle exertions it calls forth from its commentators, whether its author always hoped for them or not. And as a man whom sleep hath seized I fell. And I, who had my head with horror bound, Voto Medio. But that context also, while allowing for the question of interpretive failure on the part of the disciples who do not understand what Jesus means when he says that those who eat of his flesh shall live forever, is rounded off by the moral failure of certain disciples (John 6:61; 6:66). III.12]; Padoan [comm. I.22-27; Inf. II.37-42; Inf. On that occasion, Virgil answers him immediately; on this, as we soon see, he is much less forthcoming. I.55-60; Inf. 13-23).   As soon as they had heard those cruel words.   Of him the ferryman of the livid fen, Tra i temi correlati si vedano la sintesi e l'analisi e commento del canto. ", And he to me: "These things shall all be known   Maintain the melancholy souls of those Unlike the souls about to be ferried by Charon, some of whom may reach the relative bliss of the Elysian Fields, Dante's sinners have no hope whatsoever of their next life, not even, we may imagine, those guiltless pagans destined for Limbo, where, the reader will be told (Inf. to Inf. There is general agreement that Dante could not have known the texts of Plautus directly (he does, however, name the Roman playwright at Purg. III.76-78). to Inf. See Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), pp.   Thou to the shore shalt come, not here, for passage; And when to gazing farther I betook me. 100-111) the souls, having already undergone the Last Judgment (and this scene is probably meant to remind us of that one), are loath to cross to their final resting place, and Charon has to urge them onward physically. Dante's personal hatred for those who, unlike him, never made their true feelings or opinions known irradiates this canto. See the note, below, to Inf. 27-30. III.12, 'Maestro, il senso lor m'è duro.'. 1900]), Tommaso Casini and S.A. Barbi (Italian, 1921), G.A. Languages diverse, horrible dialects, One might argue that his point is that Dante has gotten ahead of himself.   Only eterne, and I eternal last. Now he speaks of 'dim light,' thus resolving the problem of vision in a world without light, in the world of eternal darkness' (Maria Simonelli [Lectura Dantis Americana: “Inferno” III (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993)], p. 61). to Inf. COMMENTO CANTO 33 INFERNO DIVINA COMMEDIA.   Throw themselves from that margin one by one, For the post-biblical concept of the Trinity, especially as it was advanced in St. Augustine's De Trinitate, where Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is each identified by one of these attributes, respectively, see G. Fallani, “Trinità” (ED.1976.5), pp. En stock. 42-43); and in Maria Simonelli (Lectura Dantis Americana: “Inferno” III [Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993], pp. Retrouvez Commento Al Primo Verso del Canto VII Sull’ inferno Della Divina Commedia Di Dante Alighieri et des millions de livres Livré : Détails . Parafrasi Attraverso me (Per me) si entra nella città della sofferenza, attraverso me si entra nel dolore senza fine, attraverso me si entra fra la gente dannata.   Which waiteth every man who fears not God. Canto 3 Inferno: parafrasi. VI.318-319), Aeneas's inquiry of the Sibyl as to the motives leading the dead to desire to cross Acheron: 'dic,' ait, 'o virgo, quid volt concursus ad amnem? Mazzoni, in agreement with Bruno Nardi (La caduta di Lucifero e l'autenticità della “Quaestio de aqua et terra” [Torino, S.E.I. Nonetheless, the view of John Taaffe is worth noting (A Comment on the “Divine Comedy” of Dante Alighieri [London, John Murray, 1822]), p. 171: '...I tend to accept [orror] without reserve, not because it is the most intelligible and poetical... on what I take to be the very best possible authority – that of Boccaccio.'   A lighter vessel needs must carry thee. E suon di man con elle. commento 3 canto inferno. Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), p. 342, follows the tradition in the commentaries which argues that this tercet reaffirms the moral reading of Inf. For the Aristotelian/Thomist sources of Dante's meteorology, the subterranean winds that cause earthquakes, see Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), pp. Sull'Acheronte i poeti incontrano Caronte, colui che naviga e porta le anime da una riva all'altra. Canto 26 Inferno - Commento (2) Analisi del canto XXVI della Divina commedia di Dante Alighieri. But when he saw that I did not withdraw, He said: "By other ways, by other ports the similar moment at Inf. Where each of the first two cantos has had two major similes (Inf. to Inf. The word in rhyme position, indegna, has caused some anxiety.   Whence said I: "Master, now vouchsafe to me, That I may know who these are, and what law   Makes them appear so ready to pass over, III.73) as 'istinto diventato norma e legge' (an instinct become a norm, even a law). And after he had laid his hand on mine Classificazione. For complicating readings of what many have understood as a fairly evident remark, see Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), pp.   Nor them the nethermore abyss receives,   Through me the way is to eternal dole; These two verses are repeated, word for word, at Inferno V.23-24. I.82-86), does not recognize this place, so fully described by Virgil in his Sixth Book. Commentary text is copyrighted and reproduced by permission. Inferno 3 opens with the words written on the gate of Hell; and yet, despite this reality, the canto depicts a protracted limen (threshold): a liminal space between the entrance to Hell and the first circle of Hell, which we reach only in Inferno 4; this liminal space represents the pivot point of choice between the binary destinies of the Christian universe: damnation or salvation Perhaps the most interesting hypothesis was advanced by Mattalia (comm. , Livraison. COMMENTO AL CANTO IV DELLA "DIVINA COMMEDIA - INFE... COMMENTO AL CANTO III DELLA "DIVINA COMMEDIA - INF... ANALISI DEL RACCONTO "I MORTI" DI JAMES JOYCE, COMMENTO AL CANTO XVIII DELLA "DIVINA COMMEDIA - PURGATORIO", COMMENTO AL CANTO XXI DELLA "DIVINA COMMEDIA - PURGATORIO", COMMENTO AL CANTO XXII DELLA "DIVINA COMMEDIA - PURGATORIO".   And hence if Charon doth complain of thee,   "Here all suspicion needs must be abandoned,   Hateful to God and to his enemies. And thou, that yonder standest, living soul, A. Mandelbaum, A. Oldcorn, and C. Ross (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), p. 47. The names of many others have been proposed, including those of Esau and Pontius Pilate. Then with mine eyes ashamed and downward cast, 110-18. In the first instance, he asked about the nature of those he saw displayed just before him. And, for a similar deliberately reticent description of an action, see the note to Inf. Dante's essential technique for indicating the crucial moral failures of his various groups of sinners is here before us for the first time. III.76-78), who argued that Virgil is upset that Dante, who had offered himself as a devoted reader of the Aeneid (Inf.   Which, with their tears commingled, at their feet III.109-111). Henry Paolucci (New York: The Bagehot Council, 2000 [1964]), pp. Nei canti seguenti però vedremo che spesso gli svenimenti e i sonni di Dante si accompagnano a eventi sovrannaturali, alcuni dei quali ne facilitano il cammino, quindi non è folle l'ipotesi che un intervento angelico conduca i due poeti al di là del fiume. Le anime tremano sentendo le sue parole e incassano i suoi colpi di remo quando non sono leste a salire nella sua barca. III.14-15). The adjective diverse here means either 'different the one from the other' (on the model of the confused languages spoken after the construction of the Tower of Babel) or 'strange,' a meaning for the adjective frequently found in Dante.   Fearing my words might irksome be to him, Questa perdita di sensi porta il poeta a non vedere, e quindi a non spiegarci, come supera l'Acheronte. Most of the early commentators are drawn, however, to the first hypothesis (dark in color), while several recent ones prefer the latter. Made up a tumult that goes whirling on For strong, even convincing, support for that of Celestine see Giorgio Padoan (“Colui che fece per viltà il gran rifiuto,” Studi Danteschi 38 [1961], pp.   Created me divine Omnipotence, There has been a lengthy dispute in the commentary tradition as to whether or not Dante has invented the neutral angels or is reflecting a medieval tradition that had itself 'invented' them (since they are not, properly speaking, biblical in origin). 419-22, surveys the dispute, which probably began with Benvenuto da Imola (comm. It is surely better to understand him first and foremost as himself. Their tears mix with the blood drawn by these wounds only to serve as food for worms. Thus, beginning with the second redaction of the commentary of Pietro di Dante, certainty that the vile self-recuser was Celestine began to waiver. 1 risposta.   Even as the sand doth, when the whirlwind breathes. La discussione è crescita.   He led me in among the secret things. Nonetheless, Mattalia's point does seem to have some merit, particularly because Dante's guide mentions the name of the river (Inf.   Well mayst thou know now what his speech imports.". The scene indeed has a classical precursor, as was noted, among the early commentators, by Boccaccio (comm. The question of how Dante crosses Acheron is much debated. Dante's verse may seem to violate the Aristotelian/Thomist definition of God as the 'unmoved mover.' His main point is that the lectio difficilior is especially likely here, given that the noun 'gente' has already been used five times in this canto (vv. Had he not wanted to remind Dante of the Virgilian roots of this current experience of an underworld, would he not have merely said, 'the river,' leaving the identification for later? Thereafter all together they drew back, That seems a most doubtful proposition. IX.22-27; Inf.   That which is willed; and farther question not.". The three attributes of the Christian God, Power, Wisdom, and Love, are nearly universally recognized as informing these two verses. Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), pp. Dante easily could have told us what he wants us to make ourselves responsible for; but that is not his way. Justice incited my sublime Creator; Rispondi Salva.   Whence I: "Their sense is, Master, hard to me!". Nardi's telling objections to Petrocchi's denial that Dante would have put Celestine, canonized in 1313, in hell (Itinerari danteschi [Milan: Franco Angeli, 1994 (1969) pp. IX.50, 'battiensi a palme,' which describes the Furies beating their breasts 'come qui [on earth] fanno le femine che gran dolor sentono, o mostran di sentire,' may help unravel this verse as well: the sound is that of hands striking the sinners' own bodies as they beat their breasts, as Boccaccio had already suggested in his gloss to this verse: 'come soglion far le femine battendosi a palme' (Inf. The most-debated passage of this canto, at least in the modern era. Dante le legge sulla sommità della porta dell'Inferno e non sono altro che una breve ma efficace descrizione di cosa sia il regno di Lucifero. III.12]) have heard the echo of John 6:60: 'Durus est hic sermo' (This is a hard saying). And I: "O Master, what so grievous is III.95-96) has offered, in my opinion, a sufficient gloss to Virgil's words: 'E qui fanno le parole di Virgilio a Caronte quell'effetto che il mostrar dell'aureo ramo fa della Sibilla...' (Virgil's words have the same effect on Charon that the Sibyl's showing the golden bough had on him). In Inferno 3 the voyagers traverse the gate of Hell at the beginning, and the river Acheron at the end. These have no longer any hope of death; 1, Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Texts and Studies [Binghamton, NY: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1992], pp. XVIII.91). III.10). For the history of the interpretation of this tercet, now generally understood to indicate the presence in the 'ante-inferno,' or vestibule of hell, of the neutrals, those who never took a side, see Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), pp.   Bitterly weeping, to the accursed shore,   Their colour changed and gnashed their teeth together, A much-debated verse. 86-91] and Hollander, Dante and Paul's “five words with understanding,” Occasional Papers, No.   Resounded through the air without a star, V. ). On this problem see Nardi, Dal “Convivio” alla “Commedia” (Rome: Istituto Storico Italiano per il Medio Evo, 1992 [1960]), pp. III.9-10). 3:15-16) from the other sinners. Many of the early commentators were convinced that this passage clearly intended a biting reference to Pope Celestine V (Pier da Morrone), who abdicated the papacy in 1294 after having held the office for less than four months. Similarly, the phrase che mai non fur vivi (who never were alive) is darkened by its probable source, cited by several modern commentators (perhaps first by Sapegno [comm.   All cowardice must needs be here extinct.   To these, that maketh them lament so sore?" Come tutti sanno, fra "le donne antiche e’ cavalieri" che formano la Conv., Ill, XV commento al verso di Amor che ne la mente.Coefficient : . Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), pp. IV.42) by no less an authority than Virgil himself, 'che sanza speme vivemo in disio.'. Charon's address to the wicked souls awaiting transport reinforces the hopelessness of this place, which was initially insisted on by the writing over the gate of hell (Inf. IX.49-51) to Inf. CANTO 3 INFERNO COMMENTO Un'eco della parola divina resta dunque anche nei dannati più lontani da Dio che, benchè perduti per sempre, per sempre restano creature. 112-113) that awaits us. This banner, by its very nature, seems incapable of ever coming to rest.   Withdraw thee from these people, who are dead!" 301-7.   With joyful mien, whence I was comforted, Con queste parole si apre il canto III dell'Inferno. Others today (e.g., Bosco/Reggio [comm.   Trembled so violently, that of that terror Expédié et vendu par. These miscreants, who never were alive, Without opposing that further interpretive dimension of the scene, one should probably insist on a literal understanding that squares with the text.   Beckoning to them, collects them all together, Our translation tries to reflect both possibilities, suggesting that one is clearly present, while the second may be only latent. III.12) is resolved once we understand that here 'eternal' is used to mean 'sempiternal,' that is, as having had a beginning in time but lasting ever after. These did their faces irrigate with blood, Recensione di Francesca83C - 17-07-2016. Il quale è rimasto e rimarrà eternamente chiuso nei limiti feroci della sua società e della sua storia, dominate da tradimenti, crudeltà, odio, brama di potere, guerra; onde, come portato della illogicità umana, la dissoluzione del vivere civile, la corsa del genere umano alla dannazione, dolore in terra e nell’al di là. Are the words over the gate of hell (1) threatening to Dante? IV.25-27 as well as Inf. Lacking Dante's autograph MS, we can only conjecture. Commento del canto 3 inferno di Dante Alighieri(La parte dove parla di Caronte urgente per domani)? See Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), p. 343, citing Par.   That ever Death so many had undone. That the adjective is to be treated as an adjectival noun for 'the wicked,' i.e., the damned in general, is an idea that has only entered commentaries in our own century. Dante revisits this scene for several details, including the first image in his celebrated simile (vv.   Nor faithful were to God, but were for self. Indeed, his first sense impressions of the neutrals are entirely auditory (Inf.   That of all pause it seemed to me indignant; And after it there came so long a train   Upon the dismal shore of Acheron.". III.10-12), paraphrasing the protagonist's remark as follows: 'non dico dura, perch'io non la intenda, ma dura è, perocchè dura cosa mi pare udir che io debba entrare in luogo di eterno dolore e lasciar la speranza di uscirne mai fuori, e per questo denota Dante, ch'ei temesse, e Virgilio lo confortò nella particella del testo che seguita. He was followed into it by Dante's great ecclesiastical enemy, Pope Boniface VIII, and there are colorful contemporary accounts that would have it that Boniface mimicked the voice of the Holy Spirit in the air passages that led to Celestine's bed chamber, counseling his abdication. Forthwith I comprehended, and was certain,   Of people, that I ne'er would have believed   They envious are of every other fate. 428-31. Rachel Jacoff (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986), pp. Canto 4 Inferno - Riassunto e Commento. III.64], in Revelation 3:1: 'Nomen habes quod vivas, et mortuus es' (you have the name of the living, and are dead), a fitting castigation for Dante to have had in mind for the neutrals. 390-415, offers a thorough history of the interpretation of the verse. It seems impossible not to accept his basic premise, namely that the context of the scene makes the meaning immediate and moral: the traveler is afraid, and Virgil reproves him for his fear (Inf. There is not a single detail that falls short of the condition of eternal insult. If there is merit in Mattalia's observation that Virgil had previously been angry with Dante for not understanding that the place before them had been amply described in the Aeneid and thus should have been recognized by the traveler (see the note to Inf. Most today, including Mazzoni, take Charon's formulation to refer to Dante's eventual passage to Purgatory aboard the angel-guided ship that we see in Purgatorio II.41. Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), p. 388, proposes understanding the word as having the meaning 'insusceptible.' XII.114-115. III.76-78). III.94-96): 'Caron, non ti crucciare: / vuolsi così colà dove si puote / ciò che si vuole, e più non dimandare.' It is fascinating, however, to watch the early commentators, so used to reading any fiction as though it were 'allegorical,' 'dehistoricizing' Charon. This form of just retribution is what Dante will later refer to as the contrapasso (Inf. For the view that the model for these words is found in the victorious inscriptions found on Roman triumphal arches, sculpted in capital letters in stone, see Hollander (Allegory in Dante's “Commedia” [Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1969]), p. 300. Dante's falling into unconsciousness indicates his inability to deal with the overwhelming experience of his crossing into the realm of hell proper, an 'inability' apparently shared by the poet, who simply does not tell us how he crossed the river.   Written upon the summit of a gate; II.127-132), the third canto reserves its similetic energy for this double simile that describes the final action of the canto, the departure of the sinners in Charon's skiff. Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), p. 348, gives further evidence for the first interpretation by citing Inf. When some among them I had recognised, 352-55; in Petrocchi, (La Commedia secondo l'antica vulgata, Inferno, pp. Si tratta di coloro che in vita mai presero una posizione, non furono né buoni né cattivi, non si schierarono né dalla parte del bene né da quella del male. Paraphrased: 'Like all the rest, these sinners have no hope of improving their posthumous lot; but their foul condition is such that they are envious of every other class of sinners.'. Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, For an apt description of Christ's Judgment of the damned, see Matthew 25:41, 25:46: 'Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.... And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.'. The second descriptive passage that indicates the condition of these sinners continues the contrapasso (see Inf. III.128). For an apposite citation of Job 3:3 ('Let the day perish wherein I was born, and the night in which it was said: A man child is conceived') see Eugenio Frongia, “Canto III: The Gate of Hell,” in Lectura Dantis: “Inferno,” ed. ", And unto him the Guide: "Vex thee not, Charon; The next canto will begin on the other side of the river. The verb s'adagia has been variously interpreted, either to mean that the souls delay entering Charon's skiff, or that, once in it, they seat themselves in so self-indulgent a manner as to draw Charon's wrath. Virgilio spiega che con loro sono collocati quegli angeli che non si schierarono né con Lucifero né contro di lui, rimasero dubbiosi e neutrali. See Guiniforto delli Bargigi (comm. Virgil's rather clipped response, in marked contrast with his ready response to Dante's question about the identity of the neutrals (Inf. 41-42. For a much earlier citation, see Castelvetro (comm. 99-102), argue that the drama played out here is lodged in the difficulty of interpreting. Freccero and others before him (e.g., Vandelli [comm. Sene Inferno : Canto : analisi e commento .   Here meet together out of every land; And ready are they to pass o'er the river, But see the countering argument of Hollander, “Dante on Horseback? (For this usage in Dante see Domenico Consoli, “colore” [ED.1970.2], p. In questa pagina trovate la parafrasi del Canto 3 dell'Inferno.   And voices high and hoarse, with sound of hands. A curiosity about which there has been only a modicum of speculation results from the closeness of this verse to one in the opening verses of the first scene of the third act of Plautus's comedy Bacchides: 'Pandite atque aperite propere ianuam hanc Orci, opsecro: Nam equidem haud aliter esse duco: quippe quo nemo advenit Nisi quem spes reliquere omnes.'   To thee, as soon as we our footsteps stay III.22-33).   At signals, as a bird unto its lure. Virgil now is willing to answer the question that Dante posed earlier (Inf. Quando si accorge che tra i defunti vi è un uomo vivo, gli intima di andar via e gli spiega che per chi è ancora nella grazia (Dante è comunque ancora vivo, in lui quindi vi è ancora la grazia di Dio) ci sono altre vie per accedere alla spiaggia del Purgatorio. La scritta sottolinea la natura delle anime che varcano quella soglia (la " perduta gente ") e l'eternità della pena che spetta loro. To what does the adjective rei ('evil') refer? III.79-81). Si tratta di Celestino V, il papa che lui descrive come colui ". La tenebra di cui parla il poeta si giustifica facilmente col fatto che egli è penetrato nelle viscere della Terra, ma allo stesso tempo simboleggia il tormento morale che attanaglia l'anima lontana dalla luce di Dio. The 'good of the intellect' has long been understood as God. Comincia il canto primo de la prima parte la quale si chiama Inferno, nel qual l'auttore fa proemio a tutta l'opera.]   The human race, the place, the time, the seed There are detailed discussions of the debate over the verse in Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), pp. XXXII.102), 'under the yoke' into God's holy kingdom, where he or she will be eternally a prisoner. V.142). Our translation is in accord with the literal interpretation of Padoan (comm. III.109; Inf. And, for the existence of exactly such a 'vestibule' in hell in the Visio Pauli see Theodore Silverstein (“Did Dante Know the Vision of St. Paul?” Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature 19 [1937], pp. Or (2) are they hard for him to understand?   From speech refrained I till we reached the river. Charon's insistence on Dante's difference – he is alive, the others dead – will find frequent repetition as the protagonist's extraordinary presence in hell is noted by various guardians and damned souls. Dante's apparently 'theologically incorrect' statement shows the importance of his sense of justice as the central force in the universe, so encompassing that it may be seen as, in a sense, God's 'muse,' as well as the primary subject of the poem. Essendo l'eterno supplizio frutto di un atto di giustizia divina, le anime, che bestemmiano contro sé stesse, desiderano espiare la loro condanna, come se volessero vendicarsi contro sé stesse delle loro mancanze verso Dio. A. Iannucci [Ravenna: Longo, 1993], pp. 452-55, to suggest that the poet has deliberately left the issue vague. Plot Summary. III.34-42), causes Dante to feel ashamed (Inf. This is presented at length by Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), pp. This double simile has long been recognized as involving an amalgam of two Virgilian passages, Aeneid VI.309-312 and Georgics II.82. XXVIII.142). III.27]) allow for two possibilities: the sound results from striking either the body of another or one's own. 250-51). 15-30), that this is a likely echo of the Aeneid (II.559): 'At me tum primum circumstetit horror.' For Dante, the seeming banishment of his hope is cause, not so much for distress at his intellectual failure so much as for fear of a punishment compelling enough to grasp – an eternity in hell. Or are they rhetorically difficult, and 'dark' in that respect? Dopo la visione del crudele Caronte che percuote le anime per farle salire in barca, il canto si conclude con un violentissimo terremoto che porta Dante allo svenimento. A summary of Part X (Section2) in Dante Alighieri's Inferno. And lo! Inferno Introduction + Context. III.88-93); to his protestations Virgil responds as follows (Inf. Charon, introduced first (Inf. III.27-29). R. Abardo [Firenze: Le Lettere, 1990], p. 17), allows this status to three classes of being: angels, prime matter (that is, the potential form of the as yet uncreated world), and the heavenly spheres.   Who round about his eyes had wheels of flame. See also Freccero's essay 'The Neutral Angels' (1960) in Dante: The Poetics of Conversion, ed. 40 and 41. It seems fair to say that there are fatal objections to all of these other candidacies. As Petrocchi says, both readings are acceptable: there is not so much at stake here. And he to me: "This miserable mode Here our translation follows Petrocchi (La Commedia secondo l'antica vulgata, Introduzione), pp. towards us coming in a boat 134-35. 3, 17, 33, 56, 71). In what way is the banner 'unworthy' of repose? Charon the demon, with the eyes of glede, L'ipotesi più ovvia è che egli, svenuto, sia imbarcato con Virgilio sulla barca di Caronte. In our translation we have tried to allow for both meanings. Unlike the crowds in Virgil, of whom Charon has to separate the buried from the unburied, condemned to wait one hundred years before they can be ferried to the locus their afterlives, in Dante's treatment (vv. For the less-than-defensible notion that alcuna here is a negative (rather than a positive) form of the adjective see Mazzoni (Saggio di un nuovo commento alla “Divina Commedia”: “Inferno” –Canti I-III [Florence: Sansoni, 1967]), pp. "Through me the way is to the city dolent; to Inf. Dante's Inferno. Strictly speaking, nothing can 'move' God, who Himself moves all things (even if He can be described in the Bible as feeling anger at humankind, etc.). It seems clear that this is also true with respect to the adjective in v. 42, and thus our translation, 'lest on their account the evil angels gloat.' The moment is too important, surrounded by troubling and excited details, to be dealt with as anything less than a problematic mystery that the poet asks us to solve. The word segrete here does not mean 'secret' so much as 'cut off from' – see Grabher (comm. 337-42, gives good reasons for favoring the ancient interpretation, opposing the reading offered by Pagliaro (Ulisse: ricerche semantiche sulla “Divina Commedia” [Messina-Florence: D'Anna, 1967]), pp. Several MSS have 'gente' where Petrocchi, La Commedia secondo l'antica vulgata: Intro., pp. III.123, where those who die in the wrath of God 'assemble here from every land,' a phrasing that calls attention to differing nationalities and thus suggests a plurality of tongues. See M. Barbi (Problemi di critica dantesca [Florence: Sansoni, 1934]), p. 267. From this point on the action of the canto moves to the near bank of Acheron. For the city as the poem's centering image of political life, the hellish earthly city, resembling Florence, 'which stands for the self and against the common good,' and the heavenly city, an idealized view of imperial Rome, see Joan Ferrante (The Political Vision of the “Divine Comedy” [Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984]), pp. The heavens expelled them, not to be less fair; to Inf. Yet Mazzoni's own evidence and arguments, as well as Dante's usual procedures, which tend to avoid such indeterminacy, help to convince this reader that it was indeed Celestine that Dante had in mind, as is underlined by his later scathing reference to the event of 'the great refusal' in Inf.

commento canto 3 inferno

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